Bashundhara Chowk, Basundhara 03, Kathmandu, Nepal
12th Jun, 2024

The Journey of Nepalese Manpower in Foreign Job Markets


Over the past few decades, Nepalese workers have become a vital part of the labor force in various foreign job markets. This journey of Nepalese manpower migrating abroad for employment is a complex narrative, driven by economic necessities, societal changes, and global labor demands.

Historical Context

The trend of Nepalese seeking employment abroad can be traced back to the early 19th century when the British Empire began recruiting Gurkhas from Nepal to serve in their army. This historical precedent set the stage for a broader migration pattern that would intensify in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. By the 1990s, political instability, lack of job opportunities, and economic hardships in Nepal pushed more citizens to look for work beyond their borders.

The Push Factors

Several factors drive Nepalese workers to seek employment abroad:

  1. Economic Necessity: Nepal remains one of the poorer nations in South Asia, with limited industrialization and job opportunities. The economic instability and lack of viable employment options at home compel many to seek better prospects abroad.
  2. Political Instability: Decades of political turmoil, including a decade-long Maoist insurgency, have disrupted economic activities and stymied job creation, making foreign employment a more attractive option.
  3. Educational Aspirations: With the lure of better educational opportunities for their children, many Nepalese parents opt to work abroad to afford private schooling and higher education, which are often beyond reach domestically.

Destination Countries and Employment Sectors

Nepalese workers are spread across various countries, with significant populations in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, Malaysia, South Korea, Japan, and more recently, Australia and the United States.

  1. Gulf Countries: Nations like Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, and Kuwait are major employers of Nepalese labor, particularly in construction, hospitality, and domestic work. These countries offer relatively higher wages compared to Nepal, albeit often coupled with challenging working conditions.
  2. Malaysia: Malaysia has been a significant destination for Nepalese workers, particularly in manufacturing and plantation sectors. The demand for labor in these sectors has consistently attracted Nepalese workers seeking better pay.
  3. South Korea and Japan: Through formal agreements like the Employment Permit System (EPS) in South Korea, Nepalese workers have found opportunities in manufacturing and agriculture, enjoying better working conditions and wages compared to the Middle East.
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The Role of Remittances

One of the most significant impacts of Nepalese migration is the remittance economy. Remittances sent by Nepalese workers abroad are a lifeline for the national economy, contributing nearly 25-30% to Nepal’s GDP. These funds support families back home, facilitating better living standards, education, healthcare, and even small-scale investments in local businesses.

However, this reliance on remittances also comes with risks. The national economy’s dependency on foreign earnings makes it vulnerable to global economic fluctuations and policies of host countries. Additionally, the outflow of a significant portion of the working-age population can strain local industries and slow domestic development.

Challenges Faced by Nepalese Workers Abroad

While foreign employment provides economic benefits, Nepalese workers often face numerous challenges:

  1. Exploitation and Abuse: Many Nepalese workers, especially in the Gulf countries, face exploitative working conditions, including long hours, inadequate pay, and poor living conditions. Cases of abuse and violation of labor rights are not uncommon.
  2. Legal and Social Barriers: Navigating the legal landscapes of host countries can be challenging. Language barriers, cultural differences, and lack of familiarity with local laws often put Nepalese workers at a disadvantage.
  3. Health and Safety Risks: The nature of jobs undertaken by Nepalese workers, particularly in construction and manufacturing, exposes them to health and safety risks. Reports of workplace accidents and occupational diseases are frequent, highlighting the need for better protective measures and labor rights enforcement.

Government and Policy Interventions

The Nepalese government has taken several steps to safeguard the interests of its migrant workers. These include bilateral labor agreements with host countries, establishing mechanisms for worker support and welfare, and introducing pre-departure training programs to better prepare workers for the challenges they might face abroad.

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Additionally, the government has been working to improve domestic job opportunities through various economic initiatives aimed at reducing the necessity of migration. Enhancing vocational training and skill development programs are part of this broader strategy to empower the local workforce.


The journey of manpower recruitment agency in Nepal on foreign job markets is a story of resilience, sacrifice, and aspiration. It underscores the complex interplay of economic forces, individual ambitions, and global labor demands. While the economic benefits of migration are substantial, they come with significant social and personal costs. Ensuring the protection and welfare of Nepalese workers abroad remains a critical priority, necessitating continued efforts from both the Nepalese government and international community.

As Nepal continues to navigate this complex landscape, the stories of its migrant workers will remain a poignant reminder of the lengths to which individuals will go in pursuit of better opportunities and the collective potential of human mobility in shaping economic landscapes.